It is not easy to fabricate hierarchically nanostructured materials although they can present unique and fascinating properties. We have been dedicating ourselves to the design, fabrication, and applications of functional polymer/carbon nanomaterials over years. In this presentation, we introduce strategies for achieving the uniform incorporation of nanocarbon species, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene, into polymers. The nanocarbon species have been successfully incorporated into polymer fibers and gels, and the resulting polymer/carbon nanohybrids have been demonstrated as key materials in various application fields. It has been difficult to completely utilize the properties of the nanocarbon species so far. We believe that our approach provides a very useful way to bridge the dimensional gap between the nanocarbon speices and engineering materials.