The preparation of carbon materials based hydrogels and their viscoelastic properties are essential for their broad application and scale-up. However, existing studies are mainly focused on graphene derivatives and two-dimensional materials, and the behavior of one-dimensional (1D) materials such as graphene nanoribbon (GNR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) remains elusive. Poor dispersion of the 1D materials in the solvent is one of the key bottlenecks for utilizing the materials in many applications. Herein, the dispersion of the 1D materials in an aqueous system is suggested and its unique assembly behavior is systematically investigated. Particularly, we demonstrate the concentration-driven gelation of oxidized GNR (graphene oxide nanoribbon, GONR) and the GONR hydrogels exhibit viscoelastic shear-thinning behavior and can be shear-coated to form large-area GONR films on substrates. The hydrogel system also can be used for the preparation of a high-performance membrane for nanofiltration and water purification.